Tag: #equities

The Case for a Few Good Stock Runners

The Case for a Few Good Stock Runners

Many investors limit the amount of their investments in individual companies to manage the riskThe possibility that something bad will happen. More in their portfolios.  Others advocate holding on to stocks whose prices increase faster than the rest of your portfolioA group of financial instruments. 

Why I Chose Patience over Re-balancing

Why I Chose Patience over Re-balancing

Many financial advisors recommend re-balancing your portfolioA group of financial instruments. More no less often than annually to ensure the asset allocation is consistent with your risk tolerancePersonal preference indicating how much risk you are willing to take to achieve a higher return. More, as 

7 Must-Know Stock Market Sell Signals

7 Must-Know Stock Market Sell Signals

Before we talk about the specific indicators that would signify stock market sell signals, we must understand why we bought each stock in the first place. The simple theory of ‘buy low, sell high’ seems practically very easy, but the reality of the situation is much more complex. When investors look to spend their hard earned cash on stock market investments, it is absolutely necessary that they buy stocks when they are relatively undervalued in comparison to the company or market as a whole. What investors need to assume is the fact that you make money at the price you buy at, not the price you sell. It is imperative as an investor that you understand both sides of the coin when it comes to buying and selling stocks. A breadth of knowledge in technical, fundamental, and psychological factors that affect stock prices will give you an edge.

How You Buy a Stock

Many factors can be used to help look for and find buying opportunities. When buying stocks, look for low price-to-earnings or P/E ratios relative to the industry average or a P/E ratio that is near the low of its five-year range. Find companies with strong earnings and ones that have an economic moat that will protect said earnings. Use short-, medium-, and long-term charts to identify if the stock has a history of growth.  You’ll be surprised how many companies don’t make money or make less than before, and the stock chart usually reflects that. Finally look at the business you are interested in from afar. Is it growing? Does it change the world we live in positively? How does its competition look? Utilize everything you can when looking to buy stocks.  Trades should be based on calculated risk. Without that, you are gambling.

Stock Market Sell Signals

Now that we’ve discussed why we would buy a stock, let’s dive into why you should sell a stock. As the market moves, it’s important to keep an eye on how your company looks from a financial standpoint. Below we will discuss in detail some key fundamental metrics that could be used to signal that a stock is overvalued, also known as stock market sell signals.

Price-to-earnings (P/E)

The P/E ratio is used to show how expensive a stock is relative to the money it earns. The first check you can perform on any stock is to compare the stock in question’s P/E with the sector average. If the stock’s P/E is higher than the sector average, then the stock is relatively more expensive than the sector’s average and can be considered a sell signal. Some companies (typically tech companies) carry a high P/E due to the public pricing of future earnings. This is why the next step would be to compare the stocks P/E within a five-year range of its own P/E. If the stock is near the top of the five-year range, then it’s more overvalued than it has been in the last five years, which could be an indication to sell.

Next, with a word of caution we can look at the Forward P/E. I say with a word of caution because this is based on analysts’ expectations and guidance set by the company. Don’t forget these are educated guesses – they can be spot on or miss the mark completely. Typically, when the Forward P/E is higher next year than the current P/E, there is a projection of lower earnings. Most, if not all, investors should invest in companies projected to make more money quarter over quarter and year over year. This too could be used as a signal for when it’s time to sell a stock. With some simple yet advanced tactics, you can even project the stock price in a range for the next year. Want to learn how to do this? Click here: https://launchpadyourlife.com/learn-earn-retire-early-portfolio-builder/

Price-to-Book (P/B) Ratio

The price-to-book (P/B) ratio is a comparison between the market valuation and the book value of the company. A good buy point for any stock is a P/B under 1. But, when a stock’s P/B is higher than the sector average, then it’s relatively expensive. This comparison could be used to signal when to buy or sell depending on what the P/B is at, as well as how to compares to the industry average. Another word of caution – use this as a checkpoint and not a definitive buy/sell signal. Sometimes companies can window dress book value causing the P/B to appear lower than it really is, so again be cautious.

Earnings Per Share (EPS) Growth Next Year and Next 5 Years

Earnings per share (EPS) growth uses projected earnings to give us a glimpse into what may happen next year. This can also be used to understand trends. Is the company constantly growing its earnings? Is it stable, consistent growth? If the answer differs from its history, it could be one of our stock market sell signals. The importance of earnings growth is that the stock price inevitably follows earnings. Some newer companies could have growth based on expected future earnings, but the stock price generally reverts to the mean at some point – all based on the company’s actual earnings.

Debt Load Management

If a stock has a debt load, it is important to assess how management is handling it. Is management letting debt grow or paying it down faster than expected? The answer is important because a building debt load increases the interest expenses the company will have and therefore affect the bottom line.

We want to focus on year-over-year changes in the debt/equity ratio as well as the long-term debt/equity ratio. We want these ratios to either be a low stable number relative to the industry average or we want to see that management is actively paying it down. In doing so, shareholders equity or the value of the shares you currently own will increase. When the opposite is happening, such as erratic or increasing debt loads, we should be concerned and possibly ready to sell. If you want to look at a year-over-year trend of these statistics, Charles Schwab has some great tools that come with its account. Below we can see the five-year trend in graphical form to the left, a definition of the ratio in the middle area, and the current value of the ratio to the right for a sample company.

Debt to Capital Ratios

Do you want to open a Charles Schwab account to access these awesome features? Click this link to sign up, it only takes minutes! http://www.schwab.com/public/schwab/nn/refer-prospect.html?refrid={REFID}

The Big Picture

Sometimes the best way to tell if it is time to sell a stock is to see if the story has changed.

Changes in Business

Before you ever invest in a company, it is imperative that you look at the business from every angle. It is necessary as an investor to know what you are buying and why you are buying it. You would not buy a car without test driving it, would you? Typically, you look at Consumer Reports, talk to people who have owned that car model, and look at safety ratings and mechanical flaws or misnomers. The same can be said for stocks – look for changes in the income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cashflows. When these things begin to change from your initial thesis, it may be a stock market sell signal.

Changes in Management

When management changes, it may be time to sell. Typically, stock prices fall when new management is announced because a different mindset is at the helm of the company. People may have the same goal, but different paths to reach said goal. The story can change on a multitude of levels. Even if the financials are still intact, if the story about who it is as a company or what it does has changed, it may be one of our stock market sell signals.

An example of this is the Chinese company, Lukin Coffee, which, from its financials, was poised to be the next Starbucks. It was later realized that the earnings were not as they seemed and they were forging financial documents. The stock tanked and has since been delisted from the NASDAQ. Sometimes you can see the smoke before the fire and get out of a stock, and sometimes you will have to get out while down to prevent a total loss.  As a caution, though, a decrease in a stock price isn’t always a sell indicator.  In fact, in some cases it may be a chance to buy more of the company’s stock.  So, you’ll want to be sure to understand why the stock price has decreased.

Sector Rotation

The stock market moves in and out of sectors like the tides in the ocean based on the current point of the economic cycle. Understanding where money is moving in and out of could be used as a signal for when to sell a stock. The best way to grasp this concept is to take a step back and look at the overall economy. During times of fear, the best investments tend to be non-cyclical defensive positions like grocery stores and household goods.  In a depression or economic contraction, you may not buy a new iPhone, but you will still buy bread and toothpaste for your family.

Many graphics can be found by googling ‘sector rotation’ to give you a better idea as to what are the best sectors to invest in based on the economic picture at hand. Trying to time the market tends to not be a successful strategy. The old saying goes, ‘time in the market is better than trying to time the market.  Use sector rotation to either sell at right time or buy on the dips when the sectors rotate.

Portfolio Rebalancing/Profit taking

As you build your portfolio, if you invest in great companies, then eventually the underlying stock prices should rise. As those stock prices rise, the overall percentage that it takes up of your portfolio rises as well. For most passive investors, any one stock should not take up more than 3-5% of your overall portfolio to avoid company specific risk.

Closing Thoughts.

Now you have some stock market sell signals!  Remember that you should only invest in what you know.  When things start to change, do whatever you have to in order to protect your money and continue to grow your wealth. Good luck investing!

Why I Don’t Hold the All Seasons Portfolio

Why I Don’t Hold the All Seasons Portfolio

The All Seasons PortfolioA group of financial instruments. More reports amazing statistics about its returns.  I’d never heard of the All Seasons PortfolioA group of financial instruments. More, so had to check it out.  As I’ll discuss in more detail, it is an asset allocation 

Selecting Stocks with a Score

Selecting Stocks with a Score

A friend of mine really likes selecting stocks with a score, the Piotroski score in particular.  Briefly, Professor Piotroski created a set of nine financial ratios that contribute to the score. If a company meets a certain criterion and has favorable results on 8 or 

Picking Stocks Using Pictures

Picking Stocks Using Pictures

Technical analysts select companies for their portfolio based on patterns in stock prices.  That is, it allows them to enhance their process of picking stocks by using pictures. This approach is very different from some of the others I’ve discussed, as buy and sell decisions are based in large part on these patterns and less on the financial fundamentals of the company. Every technical analyst has a favorite set of graphs he or she likes to review and their own thresholds that determine when to buy or sell a particular stock.

I’ve done just a little trading based on technical analysis, so asked Rick Lage, a family friend who has much more experience with this approach, to help me out. In this post, I will provide some background on Rick and provide explanations of the graphs he uses. I’ll also provide some insights on who I think is best suited for this type of trading.

Rick’s Story

Rick’s Background

“I was first introduced to the stock market in a Junior High School math class. I made my first trade with a stockbroker about 6 years after graduating from High School.

My interest in the stock market never faded. I was always focused on this platform to make money. Unfortunately losing money was a regular occurrence for many years in the beginning, with not many gains to be proud of.

My interest peaked in 1999 when I attended my first stock trading event in Las Vegas, known as the TradersExpo[1]. TradersExpo provides a wealth of information available for the beginner to the pro, including hardware, trading software, classroom instruction and more.

I personally have never been a day trader. Swing trading is more my definition. I do touch base with my stock watch list daily. It’s always managed and checking my technical indicators is a must.”

Rick’s Goals

“I stock trade for the challenge; not so much for the fun or success. If there is success the fun will follow. There will be losses. No doubt. But you learn how to manage those losses. You have no choice. Technical trading is my science.”

Rick’s Advice to New Traders

Rick says, “I have tried hard to never complicate the trade. There are many technical indicators, so don’t get overwhelmed. I pick stocks that have the momentum. Pick your favorite few indicators and go with those.”

Rick’s Tools

Rick’s favorite indicators are

  • Simple Moving Averages using 9 and 180 days (SMA 9 and SMA 180)
  • Price and Volume Charts
  • Relative Strength Index (RSI)
  • Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)
  • Heikin-Ashi bar chart

I will provide brief introductions to each of these indicators, illustrating each with two stocks – Apple and Shopify. A graph of Apple’s stock prices from January 1, 2018 through mid-May 2020 is shown below. It had some ups and downs in price in 2018 and 2019, followed by a significant decrease and recovery so far in 2020.

Apple stock price from 2018 to 2020, starts at about 150, goes to 200, back to 150 by early 2019, over 300 by early 2020, down below 250 in March 2020, back above 300

Shopify had a steadier increase in 2018 and 2019, but much more volatility so far in 2020, as illustrated in the graph below.

Shopify stock price from 2018 to 2020. Starts around 100, goes to 400 in mid-2019, down to 300 by end of 2019, above 500 in March 2020, down to almost 300 then above 700

Simple Moving Averages (SMA 180 and 9)

In this context, a simple moving average (SMA) is the average of the closing prices for the past n days, where n is specified by the person making the chart. In Rick’s case, he looks at the 180-day simple moving average and the 9-day simple moving average. For the former, he takes the average of the closing prices for the previous 180 days; for the latter, the average of the closing prices for the previous 9 days.

SMA Charts

Technical analysts add their favorite SMA lines to the chart of the stock’s price. For illustration, I’ve added the SMA 180 and SMA 9 lines to the Shopify and Apple stock price charts below.

Shopify stock prices from 2018 to 2020 with 9-day and 180-day moving averages. Apple stock price from 2018 to 2020 with 9-day and 180-day moving average lines.

SMA Indicators

Technical analysts then look at the crossing points on the chart to provide buy and sell indications. For example, a technical analyst might look at when the closing price line (black in these charts) goes up through the SMA 180 line (blue in these charts) and call it a buy signal or an indication of a time to buy a stock. You can see an example of a buy signal, using this method, for Shopify around May 1, 2019, as indicated by the green circle.  The buy signals for Apple are much more frequent using this criterion, two of which are indicated with green circles.

Similarly, a technical analyst might look at when the SMA 9 line (yellow/orange in these charts) goes down through the SMA 180 line and call it a sell signal. Using this criterion, there was a clear sell signal for Apple in early November 2018, as indicated by the red circle.

Every technical analyst has his or her favorite time periods for SMA lines. In addition, each technical analyst selects his or her own criteria for buy and sell signals based on those SMA lines. The shorter the time period associated with the SMA, the more often buy and sell transactions will be indicated. When I use SMA graphs to inform my buy and sell decisions, I use fairly long time periods as I am a long-term investor. By comparison, some people trade in and out of stocks several times a day, so use very short time periods, such as minutes or hours.

Price and Volume

A price and volume chart shows plots of both the price of a stock and its volume on a daily basis, color-coded to indicate whether the stock price went up or down each day. The graph below is a price and volume chart for Shopify.

Shopify Price with each day showing high, low, open and close. Days when price went down are in red (about 1/2 of the days), otherwise bars are green. Below price chart is a bar chart showing the daily trading volume.

The upper chart has rectangles (called boxes), sometimes with lines sticking out of them (called whiskers). The combination of the boxes and whiskers is often called a candle. There is one candle for each trading day.

Price & Volume Indicators

A red box indicates that the price was lower at the end of the day than at the end of the previous day; a green box, higher. Green boxes can be interpreted as follows:

  • The bottom of the box is the opening price.
  • The top of the box is the closing price.
  • The bottom of any whisker sticking down from the box is the lowest price on that day. If there is no downward whisker, the lowest daily price and the opening price were the same.
  • The top of any whisker sticking up from the box is the highest price on that day. If there is no upward whisker, the highest daily price and the closing price were the same.

Red boxes can be similarly interpreted, but the opening price is the top of the box and the closing price is the bottom of the box.

The lower section of the chart shows the number of shares traded each day. If the bar is green, the stock price went up that day, while red corresponds to down.

Technical analysts use these charts to identify trends. A really tall green bar in the lower section green is an indication that a lot of people think the stock will go up so are buying. Many technical analysts consider this a buy signal. Similarly, a really tall red bar is considered by some to be a sell signal. My sense is that you need to be very quick to respond using this type of strategy, as you don’t want to sell a stock after everyone has already sold it and the price has dropped or buy it after the price has increased.

Relative Strength Index (RSI)

The Relative Strength Index (RSI) is intended to measure whether a company’s stock is in an over-bought or over-sold position. If it is over-sold, it is a buy signal; if over-bought, a sell signal. The RSI is one of a broad class of measures called oscillators, all of which are intended to evaluate whether the market is over-bought or over-sold.

The RSI is determined based on a moving average of recent gains and the moving average of recent losses. The value of the RSI is scaled so it always falls between 0 and 100.

The RSI was developed by J. Welles Wilder. He considers the market over-bought when RSI is greater than 70 and oversold when it is below 30. There are many other ways in which the RSI chart can be used to identify trends and inform trading decisions that are outside the scope of this post.

The chart below shows the RSI for Apple (blue) and Shopify (orange).

Apple and Shopify Relative Strength Indices with red line at 70 (sell signal) and green line at 30 (buy signal).

The red horizontal line corresponds to RSI equal 70, Wilder’s over-bought signal. The green line is Wilder’s over-sold signal at RSI equals 30.

In this chart, there are several times when both stocks were over-bought. That is, the RSI for both stocks goes above the red line. Apple was considered slightly over-sold a few times, when the blue line crossed below the green line. By comparison, Shopify’s RSI came close to indicating that it was over-sold a few times, but never went below the green line.

Moving Average Convergence Divergence

The Moving Average Convergence Divergence indicator (MACD) is similar to the Simple Moving Average indicator discussed above. However, it uses an exponentially weighted moving average (EMA) instead of a simple moving average. A simple moving average gives the same weight to each observation. An exponentially weighted moving average gives more weight to more recent observations. MACD can use any period – minutes, hours, days, etc. For this illustration, I will set the period equal to a day. If you are trading more often, you’ll want to replace “day” in the explanation below with “hour” or “minute.”

The MACD was defined by its designer as the 12-day moving average (EMA 12) minus the 26-day moving average (EMA 26). MACD is compared to its own 9-day moving average to determine buy and sell signals. As with the simple moving average, the MACD crossing its 9-day moving average in the upward direction is a buy signal. When MACD falls below its 9-day moving average, it is a sell signal.

MACD Charts

The graph below shows Shopify’s daily closing prices along with the EMA 12 and EMA 26 lines in orange and green, respectively, starting on February 1, 2020.

Shopify price chart from Feb 1 2020 to May 11 2020 with EMA 12 and EMA 26.

This next chart shows the corresponding values of MACD (black) and its 9-day moving average (green).

Shopify MACD and 9-day simple moving average of MACD.

If you compare the two graphs, you can see that MACD goes below the 0 line on the second chart on April 1, 2020. This transition is consistent with the orange line crossing above the green line on the first chart on the same date.

MACD Indicators

When Shopify’s MACD is bullish, its MACD is greater than its 9-day moving average or the black line is above the green line in the second chart above. This situation has been seen several times in the past few months – for short periods starting on February 11, March 23 and May 4 and a longer period starting on April 9.

The Apple MACD chart, shown below, has gone back and forth between bullish and bearish (black line below the green line) much more often in the past few months. It sometimes changes from bearish to bullish and back again on almost a daily basis.

Apple MACD with 9-day moving average (sell signal).

The “convergence” and “divergence” part of MACD’s name refers to how the MACD behaves relative to the price. The relationship is somewhat complicated, so I suggest you refer to one of the sources I mention below if you are interested in this feature of MACD charts.

Heikin-Ashi bar chart

Also known as a Heikin-Ashi candlestick chart, the Heikin-Ashi bar chart is similar to the price part of the Price-Volume chart described above.   However, instead of using the actual high, low, open and close prices, all four of the points on the candle are calculated in a different manner. The purpose of the adjustments is to make a chart that makes identifying trends easier. I refer you to one of the resources below to learn the details of how these values are adjusted.

Heikin-Ashi Charts

The charts below show the Heikin-Ashi charts for Shopify and Apple for the past six months.

Shopify Heishen Ashi candles Apple Heikin Ashi Candles

As mentioned, they look a lot like Price charts, except the boxes corresponding to the adjusted open and close and the whiskers corresponding to the adjusted high and low. The boxes are colored green when the adjusted close is higher than the previous adjusted close and red otherwise.

Heikin-Ashi Indicators

Here are some of the indicators people review when using Heikin-Ashi charts:

  • Longer boxes are indicative of trends. In the charts above, you can see that the Apple chart tends to have longer boxes than the Shopify chart.
  • When there is no whisker on one end of the box, the trend is even stronger. For example, neither the Apple nor Shopify charts have upward whiskers on the red boxes from mid-February to mid-March 2020. This time period corresponds to the time period highlighted by the red arrow on the chart below when both stocks’ prices were going down.

Apple and Shopify closing prices from Nov 1 2019 to mid-May 2020. Red arrow showing downward trend in Shopify price from mid-Febrary 2020 to late-March 2020. Green line showing upward trend in Shopify price from early April 2020 to mid-May (end of chart)

Similarly, almost none of the green bars in the last month of the Heishen Ashi chart have downward whiskers, corresponding to the time period in the price chart indicated by the green arrow.

Time periods when the boxes are short, have both whiskers and change color often are indicators of changes. For example, the Apple Heikin-Ashi chart from mid-January to mid-February shows several bars of alternating colors. Apple’s price changed from an upward trend to a downward trend in this period, as shown in the purple circle in the chart below. Identifying turning points is very important in deciding when to buy and sell stocks.

Apple closing prices from Nov 1, 2019 to mid-May 2020. Circle around prices from late Jan 2020 to end of Feb 2020 where price bounces up and down

Who Can Use Technical Analysis

Technical analysis isn’t for everyone. It requires people who (a) have the ability to focus on markets fairly closely every day in the case of swing traders or all day in the case of day traders, (b) are happy with growing their portfolio with a large number of small “wins,” and (c) have a solid understanding of the charts being used.

Time Commitment

Unlike many other investment strategies, many day traders and swing traders do not consider a company’s financial fundamentals in their buy decisions. Instead, they monitor the patterns in their charts. Without the comfort of believing that the companies they own have sound fundamentals, it is important that they follow their charts consistently so they can quickly sell any positions that are not meeting expectations.

Lots of Small Wins

In my post on financial fundamentals, I talk about Peter Lynch’s concept of a 10-bagger – a stock whose value is at least 10 times what you paid for it. In that paradigm, the goal is to attain better-than-market-average returns by getting average returns on most of the positions in your portfolio and big gains on one or two positions.

By comparison, the goal of day traders and swing traders is to make a very small amount of money on every trade, but to make lots and lots of those trades. If you earn 0.1% on average on every trading day, it compounds to just over 20% a year!

For many of us, buying and selling with gains of less than 0.1% per security seems really small and might not seem worthwhile. As such, you need to be willing to be happy with lots of little wins rather than a 10-bagger if you want to be a day trader or swing trader.

Understand the Charts

One of the requirements of using technical analysis is to make sure you understand how to interpret the charts correctly. For example, Southwest Airlines (ticker: LUV) has done very poorly recently from the impact of COVID-19. The plot below shows its closing stock price from February 15, 2020 through May 20, 2020.

Southwest Airlines closing price from Feb 15 2020 to late May 2020.

As can be seen, the last stock price on the graph (about $29) is almost exactly half of the stock price in mid-February (peaked at $58.54). As such, while it has had a few days on which the price increased, the overall trend has been down.

The RSI chart is shown below. Remember that an RSI value of less than 30 is an indication that it might be time to buy the stock.

Southwest Airlines Relative Strength Index chart from Feb 15, 2020 to May 20, 2020.

In this example, there was a buy signal when the RSI crossed below the green line (30) on February 25. The closing stock price on that day was $49.66. If you had bought the stock on that date, you would have lost 41% in the subsequent three months as the stock was at $29 on May 20, 2020.

As you can see, interpreting charts takes time and expertise. If you are willing to invest the time to learn all of the nuances of each type of chart and monitor your positions, technical analysis might be the right investing strategy for you.

There’s a lot more to know about each of these indicators than I’ve provided in this post. Here are a few links to other sources of information to learn more.

  • Stock Charts
  • Technical Analysis for the Trading Professional by Constance Brown, McGraw-Hill Education, 2nd Edition, 2012.
  • Investopedia

How I Use Technical Analysis

I primarily rely on analysis of the underlying fundamentals of a company when I purchase individual stocks. Once I make the decision to buy a stock, I look at the charts to evaluate whether the timing is good for a purchase. If the consensus of the charts I review indicates that the position is over-bought (i.e., price is too high), I will wait to see if the price decreases before buying.

In addition, I use technical analysis in my Roth IRA, where there are no capital gains taxes on trades so more frequent trading isn’t adversely impacted. I follow a large handful of industry ETFs using technical analysis and buy and sell them as each one appears to be doing well. Because I am trading in industry exchange-traded funds (ETFs) and not individual stocks, I feel comfortable looking at my positions once a week. My thought is that industries aren’t likely to experience sudden weaknesses not seen throughout the market in shorter time frames.

When I pay sufficient attention to the positions in my Roth IRA, I tend to get about or slightly above market-average performance. However, when I don’t look at my positions and re-balance regularly, I find that my performance suffers which just confirms my first point in the previous section that using technical analysis requires time and diligence.

[1] There are now TradersExpo events held regularly in many cities (subject to change by the coronavirus).

What You Need to Know About Stocks

What You Need to Know About Stocks

Stocks are a common choice for many investors.  There are two types of stocks – preferred and common.  Because most investors buy common stocks, they will be the subject of this post.  I’ll talk about what you need to know about stocks before you buy